In an era characterised by rapid technological evolution, traditional approaches to data collection and analysis have undergone a remarkable transformation. Crowdsourced data and services have emerged as powerful tools that are transforming information gathering, processing and utilisation for governmental organisations and private enterprises alike. This article delves into the intricacies of crowdsourced data, explores its lawful applications by institutions such as the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Intelligence Community (IC), and their overseas equivalents such as the UK Ministry of Defence, and underscores the need to address policy gaps. It also examines its synergistic relationship with artificial intelligence (AI) and highlights its impact on decision-making and business insights.

Crowdsourced data: pioneering a new era in information gathering

Crowdsourcing entails tapping into the collective wisdom and efforts of diverse individuals to accomplish tasks that were once the domain of specific experts or organisations. This concept has led to the collection of extensive data and information from a multitude of sources, transforming it into a valuable resource across various sectors. Crowdsourced data encompasses diverse inputs like location data, reviews, opinions, images, and more, all contributed by a global community of volunteers or participants in near real-time.

Crowdsourced data and AI: A symbiotic relationship

Crowdsourced data and AI enjoy a symbiotic relationship, enhancing the quality and utility of each other. AI technologies analyse and process crowdsourced data to identify patterns, trends, and anomalies beyond human capability. This augmentation of human insights with AI-driven analysis strengthens decision-making will be undermined where the intelligence community's policies and procedures are ambiguous or misapplied, or there is insufficient oversight to ensure their proper application.

Empowering decision-makers with advantageous insights

Crowdsourced data offers decision advantage to policymakers at all government levels. By tapping into diverse contributors, decision-makers gain ground-level insights and real-time information vital for dynamic situations. For example, during disaster relief operations, crowdsourced data aids in identifying affected areas, coordinating rescues, and allocating resources based on accurate data obtained in near real-time.

Commercial applications

Crowdsourced data's application extends beyond government. Many businesses today are utilising crowdsourcing and open-source information to deliver valuable client insights. A vast network of participants contributes data, yielding accurate insights into consumer behaviour, market trends and media consumption. This empowers businesses with informed decisions and refined strategies. The same applications can also inform government decision-makers.

Legitimate use by government

The potential of crowdsourced data and services has long been recognised by United States governmental agencies, including the Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community, in enhancing their operations. Similarly in the UK, as long ago as 2018 the Ministry of Defence stated they were "interested to understand how developments … such as … crowdsourcing ... could impact on the way Defence and Security procures and delivers its outcomes and business in the future". In domains such as navigation safety and mapping, crowdsourced data has played a pivotal role in providing real-time updates on geographical features, transportation routes, and potential hazards for decades. This continually updated information empowers both military and civilian users to make informed decisions, ensuring the success and safety of their endeavours.

In the realm of open-source data mining, crowdsourced data complements existing datasets, offering a deeper understanding of complex scenarios. This proves especially invaluable in the field of national security, where comprehensive information is crucial for assessing threats, monitoring trends and anticipating potential crisis developments. The amalgamation of crowdsourced data with other open-source datasets paints a more comprehensive picture for decision-makers.

Addressing policy gaps and challenges

While the potential of crowdsourced data is undeniable, its utilisation within the DoD and IC, and similar organisations, presents challenges due to policy gaps. Privacy concerns loom large, as the collection and utilisation of data from various sources can potentially infringe upon individuals' privacy rights. Today, the accuracy and reliability of crowdsourced data have advanced to the point where their utility outweighs outdated policy concerns. Urgent action by government policymakers is necessary to enable the continued use of this potent national security tool.

Filling policy gaps and ensuring ethical use

Harnessing the potential of crowdsourced data requires policy to ensure responsible and effective deployment particularly when gathering data from diverse sources, especially in sensitive regions or on specific topics. We recommend the following components of a crowdsourced data policy issuance.

  1. Elevated approval authorities for specific regions or topics: Considering the unique challenges of specific regions or sensitive topics, it's advisable to elevate approval authorities for crowdsourced data from such areas. This could involve subjecting data from geopolitically significant regions or areas with privacy concerns to a more rigorous and specialised approval process. This approach safeguards against data manipulation for malicious purposes and ensures access to high-quality, reliable information.
  2. Safeguarding contributor anonymity and protection: Protecting contributors who voluntarily share their insights and information is crucial. Measures must be in place to ensure contributor anonymity and safeguard their personal data. Contributors should have the option to provide data without revealing their identities, shielding them from potential backlash. Data platforms must adhere to stringent data protection regulations to prevent unauthorised access to contributors' personal information.
  3. Establishing transparent data use guidelines: Clear guidelines are necessary to ensure transparent and ethical data use. These guidelines should outline the intended purposes of data utilisation, contributor rights and mechanisms for addressing concerns. Open communication with contributors fosters trust and encourages ongoing collaboration. Active engagement and collaboration between the different bodies responsible for national security and data protection is required.
  4. Regular audits and accountability mechanisms: Implementing regular audits and accountability mechanisms maintains the integrity of crowdsourced data platforms. Independent reviews of data collection processes, usage, and privacy safeguards help identify vulnerabilities. Clear accountability chains for data handling prevent misuse and ensure legitimate use.


Crowdsourced data and services have reshaped the landscape of data collection, analysis, and decision-making. Their lawful applications in fields like safety of navigation, mapping, and open-source data mining highlight their significance in enhancing national security and intelligence operations.

However, addressing privacy concerns and bridging policy gaps are essential for the responsible and ethical utilisation of crowdsourced data. As technology advances, the synergistic relationship between crowdsourced data and AI continues to evolve, promising even greater insights and advantages for decision-makers across various domains, especially when supported by AI platforms that provide universal data collaboration across widely diverse data sources and software systems.

Moreover, commercial crowdsourced data companies demonstrate how crowdsourced data can drive business growth and innovation by providing accurate and timely insights. Ultimately, the fusion of human collaboration, technology, and data holds the potential to redefine how we understand, analyse and respond to complex challenges in the modern world.